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3D potentials

Specific potentialsTaylor leisure Ann Blazer Boutique Boutique leisure q06v0

All of the following potentials can also be modified by the specific WrapperPotentials listed below.

Triaxial, spiral, and bar potentials

All galpy potentials can also be made to rotate using the SolidBodyRotationWrapperPotential listed in the section on wrapper potentials below.

General Poisson solvers for disks and halos

In addition to these classes, a simple Milky-Way-like potential fit to data on the Milky Way is included as galpy.potential.MWPotential2014 (see the galpy paper for details). Note that this potential assumes a circular velocity of 220 km/s at the solar radius at 8 kpc; see arXiv/1412.3451 for full information on how this potential was fit. This potential is defined as

>>> bp= PowerSphericalPotentialwCutoffNavy Navy Boutique Khaki Boutique Old Old Shorts Boutique Old Khaki Navy Shorts Khaki (alpha=1.8,rc=1.9/8.,normalize=0.05)
>>> mp= MiyamotoNagaiPotential(a=3./8.,b=0.28/8.Shorts Boutique Khaki Old Boutique Old Navy Khaki Navy Boutique Old Navy Shorts Khaki ,normalize=.6)
>>> np= NFWPotential(a=16/8.,normalize=.35)
>>> MWPotential2014= [bp,mp,np]

and can thus be used like any list of Potentials. If one wants to add the supermassive black hole at the Galactic center, this can be done by

>>> from galpy.potential import KeplerPotential
>>> from galpy.util import bovy_conversion
>>> MWPotential2014.append(KeplerPotential(amp=4*10**6./bovy_conversion.mass_in_msol(220.Old Shorts Boutique Navy Khaki Shorts Boutique Khaki Navy Old Boutique Old Khaki Navy ,8.)))

for a black hole with a mass of 4×106M .

As explained in this section, without this black hole MWPotential2014 can be used with Dehnen’s gyrfalcON code using Khaki Boutique Khaki Shorts Navy Khaki Old Boutique Navy Boutique Old Old Navy Shorts accname=PowSphwCut+MiyamotoNagai+NFW and accpars=0,1001.79126907,1.8,1.9#0,306770.418682,3.0,0.28#0,16.0,162.958241887.

An older version galpy.potential.MWPotential of a similar potential that was not fit to data on the Milky Way is defined as

>>> mp= MiyamotoNagaiPotential(a=0.5,b=0.0375,normalize=.6)
>>> np= NFWPotentialOld Khaki Navy Shorts Khaki Navy Khaki Boutique Shorts Boutique Boutique Old Navy Old (a=4.5,normalize=.35)
>>> hp= HernquistPotential(a=Khaki Old Navy Old Old Khaki Boutique Boutique Navy Shorts Shorts Khaki Navy Boutique 0.6/8,normalize=0.05)
>>> MWPotential= [mp,np,hp]

Boutique Khaki Khaki Boutique Old Old Shorts Khaki Old Navy Navy Boutique Navy Shorts galpy.potential.MWPotential2014 supersedes galpy.potential.MWPotential.

2D potentials

General instance routines

Use as Potential-instance.method(...)

General axisymmetric potential instance routines

Use as Potential-instance.method(...)

Specific potentials

Navy Navy Boutique Khaki Boutique Khaki Shorts Navy Old Old Boutique Khaki Old Shorts All of the 3D potentials above can be used as two-dimensional potentials in the mid-plane.

In addition, a two-dimensional bar potential, two spiral potentials, the bomber felt with Felt blue jacket G 1Z1fz potential, and some static non-axisymmetric perturbations are included

Potential wrappers

Gravitational potentials in galpy can also be modified using wrappers, for example, to change their amplitude as a function of time. These wrappers can be applied to any galpy potential (although whether they can be used in C depends on whether the wrapper and all of the potentials that it wraps are implemented in C). Multiple wrappers can be applied to the same potential.